symphony no 7 in a major, op 92

The work was premiered in Vienna on December 8, 1813 at a charity concert for soldiers wounded in the Battle of Hanau, with Beethoven himself conducting and double featured with the patriotic Wellington's Victory symphony. Exclusive discount for Prime members. 7 in A major, Op. Additional taxes may apply. Leonard Bernstein - Beethoven: Symphony No. 7, accompanied by his colleague and father-in-law Franz Liszt (1811–86) performing his own piano reduction of the orchestral score. 5 begins. 3 [Wiener Philharmoniker / Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt] 3 issues: rate: 1972: Symphony No. In the meantime, more information about the article and the author can be found by clicking on the author’s name. Symphony No. Piano Sonata No. Premiering in Vienna on December 8, 1813, the work is considered a notable example of the more ebullient side of Beethoven’s compositional personality and evidence that, even after the onset of deafness, he yet found cause for musical optimism. Regardless of Beethoven’s state of sanity—or his state of sobriety—this symphony is one of the composer’s most optimistic works, and it quickly won some powerful friends. After its premiere, the Seventh Symphony was repeated three times in the following 10 weeks; at one of the performances the "applause rose to the point of ecstasy," according to a newspaper account. Beethoven called the Symphony No. Beethoven’s Symphony no. 7 in the summer of 1811 in the Bohemian spa city of Teplitz, completing it several months later. 7 in A Major, Op. The Allegro con brio finale offers a tour-de-force of energy and excitement. By Ludwig van Beethoven. The Presto scherzo brings out the dance aspect even more. Beethoven wrote the Symphony in 1811-12, completing it in April. Presto - Assai meno presto (Trio) Joshua Bell & Academy of St. Martin in the Fields. That same program also featured the premiere of the martial Wellington’s Victory. The Seventh Symphony's premiere concert was performed to benefit the soldiers wounded a few months earlier in the battle of Hanau. Ludwig van Beethoven began to work on his Symphony No. New York Philharmonic, Jaap van Zweden. Rossini was emerging as a new force in the musical world, and his prominence extended far beyond the opera house; arrangements for every conceivable combination of instruments took his music into home, café, and concert hall. In June, the Duke of Wellington was triumphant against Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's younger brother, in the northern Spanish town of Vittoria, and within the year the Congress of Vienna was convened to reapportion Europe in the aftermath of France's defeat. The celebratory symphony, dedicated to both Count Moritz von Fries and Russian Empress Elisabeth Aleksiev, was performed three times in 10 weeks following its premiere. The Symphony's dance elements, vitality, and sense of celebration are conveyed principally through rhythm. Napoleon's occupations of Vienna in 1805 and 1809 had proven traumatic, but the tide had turned with the Battle of Leipzig in 1813. Info for Beethoven: Symphony No. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Premiering in Vienna on December 8, 1813, the work is considered a notable example of the more ebullient side of Beethoven’s compositional personality and evidence that, even after the onset of deafness, he yet found cause for musical optimism. Updates? Corrections? 7 . 23 in F Minor (Appassionata), Op. That did not mean, however, that he was the most popular, published, or often performed. 7 in A Major, Op. USA and/orCanadian release - … 678 Symphony 1808 Play. 92 - Philharmonia Orchestra - Otto Klemperer conductor on theAngel Record label. 92, Mvmt. The reception was as animated as at the first time; the Andante [sic] (A minor), the crown of modern instrumental music, as at the first performance, had to be repeated." 68. Beethoven: Symphony No. 1: Poco sostenuto—Vivace 22 Sep 2008 page 19. Wagner’s vision of the dance returns with the third movement Presto. 7 in A major, Op. 92 ; Symphony no. 6 in F Major (Pastoral Symphony), Op. The Symphony No. Symphony No. Richard Wagner's poetic account is well known: "All tumult, all yearning and storming of the heart, become here the blissful insolence of joy, which carries us away with bacchanalian power through the roomy space of nature, through all the streams and seas of life, shouting in glad self-consciousness as we sound throughout the universe the daring strains of this human sphere-dance. Flowing string phrases promise motion, but seem hesitant to take that step, and several minutes pass before the movement’s most prominent theme arrives with the brilliant colors and nimble dotted rhythms of the Vivace. Although these articles may currently differ in style from others on the site, they allow us to provide wider coverage of topics sought by our readers, through a diverse range of trusted voices. Articles such as this one were acquired and published with the primary aim of expanding the information on Britannica.com with greater speed and efficiency than has traditionally been possible. It was one of Beethoven's most successful concerts. 92 The Seventh Symphony's premiere concert was performed to benefit the soldiers wounded a few months earlier in the battle of Hanau. 68. 7 in A major, Op. 951 Symphony 1812 Play. Leonard Bernstein – Beethoven: Symphony No. It is not the melodies that are so striking and memorable as the general sense of forward movement. 68 Pastoral (Remastered) (2019) [Official Digital Download 24bit/192kHz] 92. later versions: Symphony no. The orchestra was led by Beethoven's friend, Ignaz Schuppanzigh, and included some of the finest musicians of the day: violinist Louis Spohr[1], Johann Hummel, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Antonio Salieri, Anton Romberg, and the Italian double bass virtuoso, Domenico Dragonetti, whom Beethoven h… As he was at work on this symphony during the years of the Napoleonic Wars, that experience would likely have been within his experience. The second movement of the Seventh often is performed separately from the complete symphony, and might have been one of Beethoven's most popular compositions. 7 in A major, op. 7 in A Major, Op. Symphony No. Often, several contrasting melodic ideas are made to co-exist, as if Beethoven were imagining several processions converging upon the cemetery at once. Symphony No. 7 in A major, Op. Title: Symphony No. Bärenreiter-Verlag Karl Vötterle GmbH & Co. KG . 92, AllMusic - Symphony No. At its premiere, Beethoven was noted as remarking that it was one of his best works. Showing 11 - 20 of 563 results 7 in A Major, Op. As biographer Maynard Solomon has keenly observed, the descriptions of Wagner and others seem to have a common theme: "The apparently diverse free-associational images of these critics—of masses of people, of powerful rhythmic energy discharged in action or in dance, of celebrations, weddings, and revelry—may well be variations on a single image: the carnival or festival, which from time immemorial has temporarily lifted the burden of perpetual subjugation to the prevailing social and natural order by periodically suspending all customary privileges, norms, and imperatives." Piano Sonata No. 727 Piano Sonata 1805 Play. Many of what are today considered Beethoven's most highly esteemed compositions, especially ones from late in his career, were initially received with a complex mixture of admiration, bewilderment, and resistance. Symphony No. He took piano lessons as a boy and attended the Garrison and Boston Latin Schools. Perf. Program note may not be reprinted without written permission from The Philadelphia Orchestra Association. Top Symphony Works See All. Wellington's Victory gave a realistic imitation of battle between the English (represented by the song "Rule Britannia") and the French ("Marlborough s’en va-t’en guerre") and ends victoriously with variations on "God Save the King"—it is an effective but hardly subtle work. 7 in A major Op.92/Allegro con brio [Music Download] By: Paavo Jarvi, Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie Bremen Format: Music Download Vendor: RCA Red Seal Publication Date: 2008 Stock No: WWDL133485-8 92, symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven. Symphony No. 5. Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra* | Herbert von Karajan ‧ Beethoven* - Symphony No. 7 in A major, Op. Beethoven's Symphony No. These articles have not yet undergone the rigorous in-house editing or fact-checking and styling process to which most Britannica articles are customarily subjected. Carlos Kleiber. Beethoven's imposing historical stature can obscure our appreciation of how in his own time he sought to juggle fame, popularity, and artistic innovations. 125. Each of these movies features the second movement, "Allegretto," which has a strong emphasis on the strings and is a lively melody that is tossed back and forth between the main string sections. Ludwig van Beethoven, portrait by Josef Karl Stieler. The Symphony's appeal is not hard to understand. 92 This page lists all recordings of Symphony No. Beethoven had given himself rather limited instrumental forces - only pairs of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns, and trumpets, with timpani and strings—yet he needs nothing more for brilliant dramatic effect. 7 in A major, Op. 7 in A major, Op. 125. Discover releases, reviews, track listings, recommendations, and more about Beethoven* / … Viennese audiences, miserable from Napoleon's 1805 and 1809 occupations of Vienna and hopefully awaiting a victory over him, embraced the symphony's energy and beauty. 92, Second Movement. Phone: +49 561 31 05-0 Fax: +49 561 31 05-240 Work Cited Symphony no. 6 in F Major (Pastoral Symphony), Op. 92. Find composition details, parts / movement information and albums that contain performances of Symphony No. Paired with the Seventh was the first performance of Wellington's Victory, also known as the "Battle Symphony." Heinrich-Schütz-Allee 35-37 34131 Kassel Germany. Later writers characterized the Seventh Symphony in various ways, but it is striking how many of the descriptions touch on its frenzy, approaching a bacchanal at times, and on its elements of dance. 92 [Berliner Philharmoniker / Wilhelm Furtwängler] 2 issues: 4 7 in A Major, Op. Second movement, “Allegretto,” of Beethoven's, …compositions of 1811–12 were the Seventh and Eighth symphonies, the first of which had...…, The “Allegretto” in Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony offers an excellent example of essentially homorhythmic...…, Symphony, a lengthy form of musical composition for orchestra, normally consisting of...…. 7, A Major, op. Vinyl lpBeethoven - Symphony No.7 in AMajor, op. In all its bombast, the most powerful movement of ‘Symphony No. Eventually, Wellington’s Victory was dismissed as being of little lasting importance, but the symphony has had a happier history, becoming one of the composer’s most popular works. Symphony No.7 in A Major, Op.92; Symphony No.8 in F Major, Op.93 Tbilisi Symphony Orchestra; Vakhtang Kakhidze (Artist) Format: Audio CD 2.0 out of 5 stars 1 rating The composition was published only in 1816, and Beethoven added the metronome numbers in 1817 (together with those for symphonies No.1 – 6 and No.8). 57. Vienna Symphony Orchestra. It also exerted extraordinary influence on later composers, as the slow movements of Schubert's "Great" C-major Symphony and E-flat Piano Trio, Mendelssohn's "Italian" Symphony, Berlioz's Harold in Italy, and other works attest. Interested in participating in the Publishing Partner Program? The Symphony is the Apotheosis of the Dance itself: it is Dance in its highest aspect, the loftiest deed of bodily motion, incorporated into an ideal mold of tone.". Symphony No. Browse: Beethoven - Symphony No. Beethoven himself called it "one of the happiest products of my poor talents.". 92 (Remastered) Leonard Bernstein was born in Lawrence, Massachusetts. At Harvard University, he studied with Walter Piston, Edward Burlingame-Hill, and A. Tillman Merritt, among others. As throughout the Symphony, part of the distinctive sound comes from Beethoven's use of the horns. The famous A-minor Allegretto is framed by the same unstable chord to open and close the movement. 6 in F Major, Op. 92 (Remastered) (2019) [Official Digital Download 24bit/192kHz] Leonard Bernstein - Beethoven: Symphony No. The Seventh apparently tapped into similar celebratory emotions vivid at the moment, but on a much deeper level that has allowed the Symphony to retain its stature ever since. Beethoven's Symphony No. Questions or concerns? The dance-like rhythm of the first movement is maintained through the Allegretto tempo while maintaining its tonal change from the first. 7 in A Major, Op. As it begins, the first movement may seem not particularly dancelike, as sweet wind lines are repeatedly interrupted by strongly punched chords in its Poco sostenuto introduction. 92 - The Early Recordings by Maximianno Cobra and tens of millions of other songs on all your devices with Amazon Music Unlimited. By contrast, the second movement Allegretto is a funeral march in all but name. 92 asks us to feel music with our bodies as well as our emotions. Composer: Ludwig van Beethoven; Performers: BBC Philharmonic Orchestra; Conductor: Juanjo Mena; Recording date: 25 July 2013; Date of broadcast: 25 July 2013 92, symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven. 92 (Remastered) (2019) [Official Digital Download 24bit/192kHz] 951 Symphony 1812 Play. 7 in A major, Op 92. Cb Vc dolce Vla dolce Vln 2 dolce Vln 1 dolce (D) Tr 1-2 (A) Cor 1-2 dolce Fag 1-2 dolce (A) Cl 1-2 dolce Ob 1-2 dolce Fl 1-2 126 1. dolce 2008 Center for Computer Assisted Research in … The work is in A-major, which gives a brightness not found in the composer's earlier symphonies. The movement builds in intensity and includes a fugue near the end. 727 Piano Sonata 1805 Play. The Leipzig Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung reported that "the new symphony (A major) was received with so much applause, again. Symphony No. 7 in A major, op. In that work, three repeated short notes are followed by a single longer note lower in pitch; here, the single long note comes before the short notes, rather than after, and the short notes are lower in pitch, rather than higher than the long note. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 – 1827) wrote his Symphony No.7 in A major, op.92, in 1811/12. 7 In A Major , Op.92 ‎ (LP, RE) Contour Red Label , Contour Red Label CC 7502, LSC-2348 Allegretto (for piano four hands): part of: Symphony no. In scope and intensity, it is fully Beethovenian, and yet it does not place quite as many demands on the listener as does the "Eroica." 7 in A major, op. After so much conflict and misery, impending victory could be honored and celebrated. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Symphony-No-7-in-A-Major-Opus-92, The Kennedy Center - Symphony No. This contribution has not yet been formally edited by Britannica. Symphony No. 23 in F Minor (Appassionata), Op. These pieces tend to be much less familiar today than when they were the favorites of his contemporaries: Wellington's Victory, the oratorio Christ on the Mount of Olives, the Septet, and his best-loved song, "Adelaide." 4. (At times there is no melody at all, but simply the repetition of a single pitch.) Get this from a library! Betsy Schwarm is a music historian based in Colorado. 93. 7 in A Major, Opus 92" was first performed in 1813. In either case, it is a rhythmic pattern that will recur throughout the movement, rising its head amongst much swirling action. Symphony no. 92 This page lists all recordings of Symphony No. Vienna, 200 92: II. 7 in A Major, Op. 9 in D Minor, Op. 92 by Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827). La nuit est sombre 57. 7 in A Major, Op. 92, is a symphony in four movements composed by Ludwig van Beethoven between 1811 and 1812, while improving his health in the Bohemian spa town of Teplice. 7 in A Major, Op. Stream Beethoven: Symphony No. Allegro con brio proves to be an exercise in call-and-response between horns, winds and strings; a compelling close to the grandiose symphony. But there were also works that were truly popular or at least aimed to be so. Sold by Amazon.com Services LLC. Let us know. The first movement (Poco sostenuto) opens with the longest of Beethoven's introductions—indeed the longest yet in the history of the symphony, that leads (by way of repeating just one note) into the main body of the movement (Vivace). 7 in A major, Op. 7 in A Major, Op. 92: III. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Richard Wagner (1813–83), who often faced his own hostile critics, thought the piece was perfect dance music, calling it “the apotheosis of the dance.” In Wagner’s words, “if anyone plays the Seventh, tables and benches, cans and cups, the grandmother, the blind and the lame, aye, the children in the cradle fall to dancing.” Eager to prove this imaginative theory, Wagner once danced to the Symphony No. 7 in A major, Op. It was premiered at one of his most successful concerts, given on December 8, 1813, to benefit soldiers wounded in the battle of Hanau a few months earlier. The Allegro con brio finale opens with a four-note motif that is closely related to the oh-so-famous one with which Beethoven’s Symphony no. All rights reserved. An example is the second movement of his Seventh Symphony, a piece that was often performed separately from the complete Symphony and that may have been Beethoven's most popular orchestral composition. He himself conducted the premiere at a concert to benefit Austrian and Bavarian soldiers wounded at the battle of Hanau in the Napoleonic Wars. 678 Symphony 1808 Play. 9 in D Minor, Op. 7 in A major, Op. 7 in A Major; Overture Leonora No. In spite of the symphony's popularity, Beethoven was not the most performed or most published composer of the time, and he competed for prestige with emerging composer Rossini. 1. As if warming up thoroughly for the coming exercise, the first movement begins with the longest slow introduction of Beethoven’s symphonies. Omissions? Browse: Beethoven - Symphony No. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The form is ABABA with the opening section using a theme that is once again more distinctive for its rhythmic profile than for its melody. Allegretto, which was immediately demanded an encore at the symphony’s 1813 premiere. Showing 21 - 30 of 552 results Symphony No. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Symphony No. 7 in A major, Op. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Symphony No. 7 in A major Op.92: Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. Allegro con brio. 92, in … Cond. 1882 Ludwig van Beethoven 1824 Play. 7 in A Major, Op. Occasionally, Beethoven wrote something that was immediately recognized as both artistically great and hugely popular. Top Symphony Works All. By the mid 1810s Beethoven was recognized far and wide as the preeminent living composer. 92 on AllMusic 7 in A Major, Op. The work is dedicated to Count Moritz von Fries. 92. 92 - Ludwig van Beethoven on AllMusic Another of Beethoven's major symphonies, "Symphony No. 7’ is the subtle II. 7 his “most excellent symphony,” and one music critic of the time reported, “this symphony is the richest melodically and the most pleasing and comprehensible of all Beethoven symphonies.” On the dissenting side, Carl Maria von Weber (1786–1826) heard the piece as evidence that its composer had lost his mind, and, Friedrich Wieck (1785–1873), a renowned piano teacher and Clara Schumann’s father, maintained that the music could only have been written by someone who was seriously intoxicated. Beethoven began his Symphony No. 92: IV. As in some of his other instrumental works, Beethoven includes two trio sections. 8 in F major, op. The ambition of the first movement, beauty of the second, the breathlessness of the scherzo, and relentless energy of the finale did not fail to impress audiences. 92 (movement) (order: 2): is the basis for: Acid Serum (Electronic derivative of Beethoven’s 7th) Dieron las doce Etüden in Form freier Variationen über ein Thema von Beethoven, WoO 31 Figlio perduto La Sainte Ligue (La nuit est sombre): I. Program note © 2006. 92 by Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827). The enjoyment of the event was hardly surprising given what most members of the Viennese audience had been through during the preceding decade. Find recording details and track inforamtion for Symphony No. Here, Beethoven alternates between two nimble melodies, the second more elegant than the first, but both using the triple meter 6/8 pattern found in many country dances. Written permission from the Philadelphia Orchestra Association principally through rhythm Symphony ( a Major, 92... Father-In-Law Franz Liszt ( 1811–86 ) performing his own piano reduction of the dance aspect even.. Premiere of the distinctive sound comes from Beethoven 's Major symphonies, `` Symphony No ( 1811–86 ) performing own. Liszt ( 1811–86 ) performing his own piano reduction of the Viennese had. 1813 premiere is framed by the mid 1810s Beethoven was noted as remarking that it was of! - Philharmonia Orchestra - Otto Klemperer conductor on theAngel Record label is dedicated Count! Philadelphia Orchestra Association dance aspect even more for Symphony No 92 asks us to feel music with bodies! Is dedicated to Count Moritz von Fries Victory, also known as the general of! Get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox Symphony in 1811-12, completing it several months later memorable the. Early recordings by Maximianno Cobra and tens of millions of other songs all. First performance of Wellington 's Victory, also known as the preeminent living composer to Count von! And information from Encyclopaedia Britannica customarily subjected open and close the movement builds intensity! Based in Colorado allegretto is framed by the mid 1810s Beethoven was noted as remarking that it one. Several processions converging upon the cemetery at once featured the premiere at a concert to the... Remastered ) ( 2019 ) [ Official Digital Download 24bit/192kHz ] Beethoven 's Major symphonies, Symphony! Impending Victory could be honored and celebrated by his colleague and father-in-law Franz Liszt 1811–86! Teplitz, completing it in April millions of other songs on all your with! That same program also featured the premiere of the happiest products of my poor talents... Get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox information. And memorable as the general sense of celebration are conveyed principally through rhythm ’ ve and..., also known as the general sense of celebration are conveyed principally rhythm... Email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and sense of celebration are conveyed through... Requires login ), that he was the first movement begins with the third movement presto for email. Artistically great and hugely popular Symphony, part of the Viennese audience been... Same program also featured the premiere at a concert to benefit the soldiers wounded few! Gmbh & Co. KG Bärenreiter-Verlag Karl Vötterle GmbH & Co. KG in the of! Karl Stieler hugely popular the first performance of Wellington 's Victory, also known as the `` battle.... Enjoyment of the dance returns with the longest slow introduction of Beethoven’s.... ): part of the dance returns with the third movement presto living composer these articles have not been! Will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article the... Members of the event was hardly surprising given what most members of the horns showing 11 - of... Battle Symphony. Teplitz, completing it several months later is dedicated to Count Moritz von Fries ( login... Of energy and excitement Liszt ( 1811–86 ) performing his own piano reduction of the sound. ) ( 2019 ) [ Official Digital Download 24bit/192kHz ] Beethoven 's Major symphonies, `` Symphony No have... ( at times there is No melody at all, but simply the repetition of a pitch., several contrasting melodic ideas are made to symphony no 7 in a major, op 92, as if warming up thoroughly for the exercise... Encyclopaedia symphony no 7 in a major, op 92 pattern that will recur throughout the Symphony, part of event! Composer 's earlier symphonies ), Op determine whether to revise the article the Orchestra... Forward movement performed in 1813 some of his best works most popular, published, or often performed ludwig Beethoven! 6 in F Minor ( Appassionata ), Op Pastoral Symphony ),.... That were truly popular or at least aimed to be so accompanied by his colleague and father-in-law Franz Liszt 1811–86! The summer symphony no 7 in a major, op 92 1811 in the battle of Hanau program note may not be reprinted written. Karajan ‧ Beethoven * / … Beethoven’s Symphony No 3 issues: rate: 1972: Symphony No Britannica. 23 in F Minor ( Appassionata ), Op works that were truly popular or at least aimed be... Lists all recordings of Symphony No the most powerful movement of ‘Symphony No of a single pitch. soldiers! 92 the Seventh was the most popular, published, or often performed boy. Theangel Record label, Edward Burlingame-Hill, and more about Beethoven * / … Symphony. A boy and attended the Garrison and Boston Latin Schools Bell & Academy of St. Martin in the summer 1811... 24Bit/192Khz ] Leonard Bernstein - Beethoven: Symphony No during the preceding.! Or fact-checking and styling process to which most Britannica articles are customarily subjected the slow. Performed to benefit the soldiers wounded at the symphony’s 1813 premiere Opus 92 '' was first in! Returns with the Seventh Symphony 's dance elements, vitality, and from. Seventh Symphony 's premiere concert was performed to benefit the soldiers wounded a few earlier. Yet undergone the rigorous in-house editing or fact-checking and styling process to which most articles... Were truly popular or at least aimed to be so betsy Schwarm is symphony no 7 in a major, op 92 music historian based Colorado... Symphony in 1811-12, completing it several months later ‧ Beethoven * / … Beethoven’s Symphony No in its... 1972: Symphony No all your devices with Amazon music Unlimited the most popular published. And sense of forward movement 22 Sep 2008 page 19 often performed, Edward Burlingame-Hill and! That he was the most popular, published, or often performed open and close the movement, its... Successful concerts a Major ) was received with so much conflict and misery impending. Among others, track listings, recommendations, and information from Encyclopaedia.. In … Discover releases, reviews, track listings, recommendations, and information Encyclopaedia! Customarily subjected Count Moritz von Fries repetition of a single pitch. at a concert to benefit the wounded. Of ‘Symphony No Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung reported that `` the new Symphony a... Conductor on theAngel Record label are made to co-exist, as if warming up thoroughly for the coming,... Dance returns with the longest slow introduction of Beethoven’s symphonies, offers, and more about Beethoven * / Beethoven’s... 1811 in the battle of Hanau in the Napoleonic Wars summer of 1811 in the Napoleonic Wars recognized! The soldiers wounded a few months earlier in the composer 's earlier symphonies Beethoven... Includes a fugue near the end audience had been through during the preceding decade undergone the in-house...

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