Atteritano, M., Catalano, A., Santoro, D., Lasco, A. and Benvenga, S. (2015). Saskatchewan Water Security Agency (2015). NSF (2005a). Internal corrosion and deposition control. Environ. Osteoporos. Rheum. (2013). J. Ivanets, A.I., Shashkova, I.L., Kitikova, N.V., Drozdova, N.V., Saprunova, N.A., Radkevich, A.V. Plants contains between 3 and 400 ppm strontium (dry mass). Bollen, A.M. and Bai, X.Q. Available at: https://iaspub.epa.gov/tdb/pages/contaminant/contaminantOverview.do?contaminantId=10600. Adv. Yamaguchi, M. and Weitzmann, M.N. However, many animal studies have observed bone abnormalities (rickets, with reduced bone mineralization and osteoid accumulation) following exposure to high doses of strontium. Method 200.7 Rev. Developmental and reproductive toxicology: A practical approach. It has no specific function, but it is absorbed because of its similarity to calcium. J. Health Canada (2015c). I-71 Ottawa. Rheum. Brown, J., Hammond, D., and Wilkins, T.Y. United States Geological Survey Edited by Marvin J. Fishman and Linda C. Friedman. Toxicology, 7(1): 11–21. Mater., 151(2–3): 432–445. The calcium-sensing receptor is involved in strontium ranelate-induced osteoclast apoptosis. Reginster, J.Y., Brandi, M.L., Cannata-Andia, J., Cooper, C., Cortet, B., Feron, J.M., Genant, H., Palacios, S., Ringe, J.D. (1990). Effect of age on strontium-calcium discrimination by rat tissues. Reduced foetal calcium without skeletal malformations in rats following high maternal doses of a strontium salt. J. Dent. Humphrey, L.T., Dean, M.C., Jeffries, T.E. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation, Washington, DC. (1997). Sorption of strontium ions from solutions onto calcium and magnesium phosphates. Susceptibility can be increased in cases of vitamin D deficiency and inadequate dietary calcium intake (Holick, 2010). Athanassouli, T.M., Papastathopoulos, D.S. Sci. Hamilton, S.M. and Zhang, K.L. It uses these reactions to explore the trend in reactivity in Group 2. Saisie no 2012-SA-0262. Mutat. Ion exchange and adsorption of inorganic contaminants. (2015). Bone, 20(1): 47–54. Bone, 11(5): 313–319. and Degteva, M.O. Schock, M.R. There would be a minor cost if new wells identified strontium exceedances at the source. (2014). Br., 44-B: 194–208. Strontium reacts slowly with water, forming strontium hydroxide, Sr(OH)2and hydrogen gas, H2. Removing barium and radium through calcium cation exchange. J. Environ. Dabeka, R.W., Huang, R., Pepper, K., Gauthier, B.R., Arbuckle, T., Fraser, W. and Rawn, D.F.K. Technol, 47: 5171. Ouvrard, S., Simonnot, M-O. Dis., 73(6): 1037–1043. There is only one municipal groundwater drinking water system in the province that has strontium concentrations that exceed the proposed guideline for strontium at the source. Araissi, M., Ayed, I., Elaloui, E. and Moussaoui, Y. NSF 06/23/EPADWCTR (EPA/600/R-06/101), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Available at: www.researchgate.net/publication/303250933 _Partition_Coefficients_Kd_for_the_Modelling_of_Transport_Processes_of_Radionuclides_in_Groundwater. It reacts with air to forms yellowish strontium oxide. Bärenholdt, O., Kolthoff, N. and Nielsen, S.P. Dong, D., Derry, L.A. and Lion, L.W. Effects of long-term strontium ranelate treatment on vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. ANSES (2013). Osteoporos. and Barry Maynard, J. Waste Manag., 20: 545. Evaluation of synthetic inorganic ion exchangers for cesium and strontium removal from contaminated groundwater and wastewater. Pharmacol., 41(6): 543–549. Med., 126(1): 79–83. NSF 05/13b/EPADWCTR, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Chapter 2 in: Huang P.M. and Schnitzer, M. Strontium metal burns in air to produce both strontium oxide and strontium nitride , but since it does not react with nitrogen below 380 °C, at room temperature, it forms only the oxide spontaneously. Available at: https://mvlwb.com/content/mv2011l2-0004-snap-lake-strontium-response-plan. (2014). American Water Works Association. Biophys., 124(1): 575–581. Effects of strontium ranelate on markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Short-term effects of fluoride and strontium on bone formation and resorption in the mouse. Drinking water usually contains about 50 mg/L sodium. No paragraph was submitted by the province. Br. Prot., 35(3): 677–694. Before formal adoption of any drinking water standard for strontium in Saskatchewan, the WSA will conduct further studies to determine the occurrence and level of exposure to strontium by examining various water sources and treatment technologies in the province. Environment and Climate Change Canada (2017). and Marie, P.J. (2006). Public. Bostick, D.T., DePaoli, S.M., and Guo, B. Effects of strontium on the physicochemical characteristics of hydroxyapatite. The allocation from drinking water is assumed to be half of the total potential exposure, with the balance from the formula itself, as supported by the exposure data from Section 5. Osteoporos. Technol., 73(7): 1628–1636. Res., 8(5): 607–615. NSE does not maintain water quality data for private supplies; however, the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) maintains a database of raw groundwater chemistry that includes municipal, registered, and private groundwater supplies. Initially the fizzing of hydrogen looks similar in reactivity to lithium although the strontium hydroxide product isn’t as soluble and causes the reaction to slow a little. Health Phys., 29(1): 75–80. Use of strontium ranelate and risk of acute coronary syndrome: cohort study. Acad. Thermal conductivity of IONSIV IE-911 crystalline silicotitanate and Savannah River waste simulant solutions, ORNL/TM-2000/285, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee. Child., 75(6): 524–526. Schock, M.R. Ask a question. J. Reinholt, F.P., Hjerpe, A., Jansson, K. and Engfeldt, B. Toxicological profile for strontium. Effects of strontium ranelate on bone formation in the mid-palatal suture after rapid maxillary expansion. Solvent Extr. Bone, 15(4): 425–430. Am. European Medicines Agency, EMA/PRAC/136656/2013, London, United Kingdom. Vezzoli, G., Soldati, L., Proverbio, M.C., Adamo, D., Rubinacci, A., Bianchi, G. and Mora, S. (2002). It strongly contaminated earth in the 1950's and 1960's, because above-ground test explosions were carried out. Human biokinetics of strontium. Res., 64(12): 1386–1388. Water Quality Association (www.wqa.org); International Association of Plumbing & Mechanical Officials (www.iapmo.org). Res. J. Advance Release. Krishnan, K. and Carrier, R. (2013). and De Broe, M.E. Phys. This product is then divided by 0.75 L. A reference dose of 0.3 mg/kg bw per day and a health reference level of 1500 µg/L were calculated by the U.S. EPA (2014) based on the decreased bone calcification rate in male weanling rats. and D'Haese, P.C. Crit. National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 6H2O in the diet (not clear what the dose referred to) and 0.85% calcium showed a small elevation in erythrocytes and white cell counts after 2 weeks, small histological changes of the thyroid, and lower pituitary weights and liver glycogen levels after 90 days in females (Kroes et al., 1977). Ozgur, S., Sumer, H. and Kocoglu, G. (1996). Environ. Clin. Calcif. Leeuwenkamp, O.R., van der Vijgh, W.J., Husken, B.C., Lips, P. and Netelenbos, J.C. (1990). J. (1962). Pharmacol., 31(4): 423–427. Since the highest rate of bone remodelling occurs during the first year of life, and the growth rates of long bones decrease with increasing age, infants are considered to be the sensitive subpopulation for strontium toxicity. The authors provided dosing information in mg/kg bw per day, and the effects on bone were detailed based on different biomarkers and direct bone measurements. (2002). Prot., 35(1): 87–127. For these reasons, an HBV of 7.0 mg/L was derived to be protective of infants as the most sensitive population, based on decreased bone mineralization from a study in young rats. Available at: www.medicines.org.uk/ emc/medicine/15410#rmm . Low serum testosterone levels are associated with elevated urinary mandelic acid, and strontium levels in adult men according to the US 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. and Bouchard, T.P. A multi-element profile of housedust in relation to exterior dust and soils in the city of Ottawa, Canada. Sr(s)+ 2 H2O(l)Sr(OH)2(aq)+ H2(g) Quantitative analysis. Bone material quality in transiliac bone biopsies of postmenopausal osteoporotic women after 3 years of strontium ranelate treatment. Invest., 40: 1809–1825. Office of Air and Radiation. Chemosphere, 89: 764–768. Strontium has been shown to lower calcium serum levels and to be concentrated at the osteoid calcification front (Schrooten et al., 1998; Shibata and Yamashita, 2001). Kulyukhin, S.A., Krasavina, E.P., Mizina, L.V., Rumer, I.A., Tanashchuk, N.V. and Konovalova, N.A. and Jessiman, B.J. Health, 38(3): 737–748. J. Radiol. and Duggan, M.H. and Clearfield, A. Neither the European Union nor Australia has established a limit for strontium in drinking water. While similar in nature to calcium, strontium is not an essential mineral and is found in comparatively small amounts compared to calcium. Hazard. Marie, P.J., Garba, M.T., Hott, M. and Miravet, L. (1985). Trace Elem. Public Health Rev., 32: 267–283. Electrolyte Metab., 11(1): 5–13. Doublier, A., Farlay, D., Khebbab, M.T., Jaurand, X., Meunier, P.J. Available at: www.ipen.br/biblioteca/cd/irpa/2004/files/6d6.pdf. (1987). (1983). The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: a forgotten hormone important for health. Ulger, Z., Gurel, E.I., Halil, M., Oozen, G., Kalan, I., Seringec, N., Yavuz, B.B., Yesil, Y., Cankurtaran, M., Dikmenoglu, N. and Ariogul, S. (2012). A comparative evaluation of ionsiv® ie-911 and chabazite zeolite for the removal of radiostrontium and cesium from wastewater. Données du Programme de surveillance de la qualité de l'eau potable : De 2011 à 2016, 291 analyses du strontium ont été réalisées dans 65 installations de production d’eau potable alimentées en eau souterraine. Dial. 85. Studies of sorbent/ion exchange material for the removal of radioactive strontium from liquid radioactive waste and high hardness groundwater. Chen, L.J., Tang, L.Y., He, J.R., Su, Y., Cen, Y.L., Yu, D.D., Wu, B.H., Lin, Y., Chen, W.Q., Song, E.W. Dose-dependent effects of strontium on osteoblast function and mineralization. (2014). Ann. and Barltrop, D. (1971). Strontium biokinetic model for the lactating woman and transfer to breast milk: application to Techa River studies. J. Gäfvert, T., Ellmark, C. and Holm, E. (2002). Biomed. J. Clin. (1972). (ed.). Caries Res., 47(1): 34–49. Bone Miner. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268. Center for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards. (1977) study could be due to strontium stimulation of the calcium-sensing receptor in thyroid C-cells, although this hypothesis has not been tested. Name the other two. J. Personal communication with D. Fishwick. Sci., 8(3): 180–191. Li, Z., He, M., Peng, B. and Jin, Z. Calcium and strontium changes in bone associated with continuous administration of stable strontium to rats. Changes in total body bone mineral density following a common bone health plan with two versions of a unique bone health supplement: a comparative effectiveness research study. Calcium deficiency is rare in Canadian young children (<2.6% aged 1–3 years); however, a high proportion of Canadian adolescents have been reported with calcium deficiency (>60% aged 9–18 years) (Statistics Canada, 2004). (2005). Drug Des. Sr(s) + 2H 2 O(g) → Sr(OH) 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) Fischer, D.C., Jensen, C., Rahn, A., Salewski, B., Kundt, G., D’Haese, P.C., Haffner, D. and Behets, G.J. Res., 62(9): 989–991. A recent study has shown that 0.3% calcium (strontium intake not specified) was adequate and an increase in bone structure, density, and strength parameters was observed in 4-week-old SD rats administered up to 0.3% calcium in the diet, where a plateau was reached (Hunt et al., 2008). Endocrine, 53(1): 305–312. Hence, it is anticipated that the proposed MAC for strontium in drinking water will have a negligible impact on Manitoba’s drinking water systems. Laboratory analytical results for strontium (combined raw and treated samples) were available for 35 % (n=541) of the province’s registered facilities. Scand. Strontium has been shown to be beneficial to the animal and human skeleton, and only a few epidemiological studies have documented adverse effects of elemental strontium on bone. Strontium is water insoluble, but it does react with water. Environ. Occurrence and distribution of strontium in natural water. Strontium and bone. Test No. Canadian community health survey, cycle 2.2, nutrition. Tissue Res., 4(1): 13–19. Clastogenic activity of strontium chloride on bone marrow cells in vivo. APHA, AWWA and WEF (2012). ICRP Publication 67. Strontium is stored in kerosene or mineral oil to increase its shelf life and avoid reaction with water or air. Chapter 20 in: Nanofiltration-principals and applications. Toxicology, 205(3): 157–172. Strontium and barium have reactivities similar to lithium in Group 1 of the Periodic Table. As public drinking water supplies are currently not required to test for strontium in drinking water, this analysis may underestimate the number of facilities that will exceed the proposed MAC, particularly registered supplies, as data was only available for 35 % of systems. Prot., 35(3): 659–676. I.A. Excretion and retention of stable strontium in children. Method 3500-Sr C Inductively Coupled Plasma Method . The uptake and turnover of 90Sr in the human skeleton. Overview Information Strontium is a silvery metal found naturally as a non-radioactive element. Nutr. Strontium has been shown to be beneficial to the animal and human skeleton, and only a few epidemiological studies have documented the adverse effects of elemental strontium on bone. Drug Saf., 12(4): 507–522. Available at: www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/metastatic-cancer/bone-metastases. Tissue Int., 67(2): 122–127. J. Clin. Cincinnati, Ohio. Available at: http://mining.ca/sites/default/files/documents/ FactsandFigures2013.pdf. Although the mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear, the strontium-mediated adverse effects on bone formation are related to its similarity to calcium in terms of chemical properties, with both elements sharing metabolic pathways and interacting with similar cellular and molecular components of the organism (Skoryna, 1981; Fischer et al., 2011). Sci. PID=4604. and D’Haese, P.C. European Medicines Agency, unpublished, London, United Kingdom. In total, capital costs associated with treatment equipment for registered and private drinking water supplies are estimated at $1.5 million dollars. The reaction proceeds at room temperature. Directory of accredited product, process and service certification bodies. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. An ultrastructural study of osteoclasts and chondroclasts in poorly calcified mandible induced by high doses of strontium diet to fetal mice. Effects of stable strontium administration on calcium metabolism with particular reference to low calcium diet. Facts and figures of the Canadian mining industry. American Water Works Association. Water quality and treatment: a handbook of community water supplies, 5th edition. Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Halifax. Natl. (1986). Toxicol. Since the highest rates of bone remodelling occur during the first year of life, and the growth rates of long bones decrease with increasing age, infants are considered to be the sensitive subpopulation for strontium (Hood, 2006; Wheeless, 2011). It reacts with water quicker than calcium, which is placed directly above strontium in the periodic chart, and slower than barium, placed directly below strontium. Microarchitecture and nanomechanical properties of trabecular bone after strontium administration in osteoporotic goats. An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. Zhao, S., Wang, X., Li, N., Chen, Y., Su, Y. and Zhang, J. Hamdy, N.A. Calcium versus strontium handling by the heart muscle. Water Works Assoc., 46(7): 643–654. J. Kidney Int., 56(5): 1886–1892. Alfredo, K., Adams, C., Eaton, A., Roberson, A. and Stannford, B. Dental caries and strontium concentration in drinking water and surface enamel. Literature and the other elements and their interaction with water, Distributieweg 3 2645 EG Delfgauw The Netherlands Phone: +31 152 610 900 fax: +31 152 616 289 e-mail: email@example.com, 5975 Sunset Drive South Miami, FL 33143 USA Phone: +1 877 453 8095 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Level 5 - OFFICE #8-One JLT Tower Jumeirah Lake Towers Dubai - U.A.E. De Beers Canada (2013). (1990) Effects of low doses of strontium on bone quality and quantity in rats. and Le Du, M.H. Curzon, M.E. Nephrol. Genuis, S.J. J. The Water Security Agency (WSA) has reviewed the proposed guideline technical document for strontium in drinking water and supports the proposed MAC of 7 mg/L. Reginster, J.Y., Neuprez, A., Dardenne, N., Beaudart, C., Emonts, P. and Bruyere, O. Liang, S., Morton, R., Tang, C., Barry, J., Knapp, T. and Smal, N. (2011). Removal of strontium from drinking water: pilot and full scale studies. and D'Haese, P.C. In: Handbook of stable strontium. This is however required less and less because of the increasing popularity of the flat screen TV. Water Sci. Ann. (1963). Cohort profile: the maternal-infant research on environmental chemicals research platform. 515–544. Moreover, strontium has been used in health products to treat osteoporosis, and animals receiving strontium (0.27–0.3%) in food or drinking water have shown beneficial effects in skeletal parameters (Marie and Hott, 1986; Grynpas et al., 1996; Delannoy et al., 2002; Li et al., 2012). Engineering and Statistical Research Institute Contribution No. Version 2. Perinat. Hood (ed.). Available at: www.scc.ca/en/accreditation/product-process-and-service-certification/directory-of-accredited-clients. Health, 2(6): 1297–1304. Res., 112: 212–217. Chemistry of complexation of metal ions with soil solution organics. 1.417 mg/kg bw per day is the TDI, as derived above; 7 kg is the average body weight for infants 0–6 months of age (Health Canada, 1994); 0.5 is the allocation factor estimated for drinking water. Marshall, B. Experientia, 28(5): 558–560. Snoeyink, V.L., Cairns-Chambers, C. and Pfeffer, J.L. (2014). Stereological studies on the epiphyseal growth plate in strontium-induced rickets. J Nutr., 138(8): 1462–1468. Int., 20(8): 1417–1428. Strontium concentrations in corrosion products from residential drinking water distribution systems. Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks. Environ. Bone remodelling. Hence, a point of departure (POD) of 328 mg/kg bw per day (BMDL) is deemed overly conservative. Anat., 183(4): 357–361. Role of calcium-sensing receptor in bone biology. ETV report: removal of chemical contaminants in drinking water – Watts Premier, Inc. WP-4V Drinking Water Treatment System. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems. Ion Exch., 15(5): 909–929. and Apostolopoulos, A.X. Because of its red inflammation it is suitable for application in fireworks. Svensson, O., Hjerpe, A., Reinholt, F.P., Wikstrom, B. and Engfeldt, B. (1975). European Medicines Agency, EMEA/H/C/000560/II/0031, London, United Kingdom. Bone, 45(2): 200–206. Osteoporos. Paediatr. ATSDR (2004). Radiat. Servier laboratories (2016). U. S. A., 105(19): 6834–6839. This could be caused by the relatively large 95% CI of the 425 mg/kg bw per day group compared with the others, lowering the confidence in the BMDL results. Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ) (ed.). Statistics Canada (2004). This provides for an extensive source water protection program that reduces the risk of contamination for drinking water sources. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Strontium carbonate was added to the diets of 10 birds to supply levels of 0, 1.5 & 3.0% strontium. Nielsen, S.P. Immunol. Strontium does give a … and Kellum, J.A. Calcium, Strontium, and Barium These metals react with cold water with increasing vigor to give the metal hydroxide and hydrogen. Technical support center. Trace element levels in drinking water and the incidence of colorectal cancer. Chemistry (b) Strontium metal and water react. and Borer, J.S. Schroeder, H.A., Tipton, I.H. (2000). (1987). Strontium stable dans l’eau potable – revue des connaissances et soutien aux directions de santé publique. About 99% of the strontium in the human body is concentrated in the bones. Sep. Purif. Loeb, L.A., Sirover, M.A., Weymouth, L.A., Dube, D.K., Seal, G., Agarwal, S.S. and Katz, E. (1977). Strontium is included in the third Contaminant Candidate List (CCL3) published in the U.S. Federal Register. The effects of strontium ranelate on the risk of vertebral fracture in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Am., 66(8): 1274–1280. (2011). Rheumatology (Oxford), 48 Suppl 4: iv9–13. Arch. Personal communication with C. Mosher. Harrison, G.E., Sutton, A., Shepherd, H. and Widdowson, E.M. (1965). Finally, the BMD models had poor variance (p-value of 0.02 for adequacy of variance) suggesting they would not be optimal to use in the current context. Relationship between mineral and trace element concentrations in drinking water and gastric cancer mortality in Japan. Personal communication from A.-M. Tugulea. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., U.S., pp. Osteoporos. Sufficient levels of calcium and vitamin D in the body can lower the amount of strontium incorporated into bones, decreasing the likelihood of adverse effects on the bones of children that have adequate calcium and vitamin D status. Few investigations of the carcinogenic effects of strontium have been performed. U.S. EPA (1996). The ATSDR (2004) calculated an intermediate oral minimal risk level of 2 mg/kg bw per day based on skeletal toxicity (alterations in the appearance of the cartilage plate) in rats. Wet chemical separation of strontium . and McGanity, W.J. Strontium "rickets": bone, calcium and strontium changes. The development of a MAC for strontium will require a communication plan to encourage public and private water supply owners to have their water tested for strontium. Since animals with a water solubility of 10 birds to supply levels of 0, 1.5 & 3.0 %.. Jacangelo, J removal of chemical Safety, Health strontium reaction with water, Ottawa, Ontario for alloy refinery and., 29 ( 1 ): 56–65 Berkvens, J.M in for example, reacts fairly vigorously with water! 2015A ) intake ( Holick, 2010 ) identified strontium exceedances at the mica-water interface as follows: Overview strontium... Nanomechanical properties of trabecular bone after strontium salt the 1950 's and 1960 's, because of the water... ( 2005 ) an Akt-dependent increase in accumulation of strontium-90 in the,. And magnesium phosphates Röhmu, M. and lytle, D.A., Sorg, T.J. and,... The examination of water and gastric cancer mortality in Japan spatial distribution of strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporotic women 3., D.R Office of groundwater and drinking water – Pall/Kinetico Purefecta™ drinking water and fluvial sediments residue air vacuum! Hemorheological changes with strontium ranelate on bone marrow cells in vivo, J.E reduction in the isolated rat.! Long and complicated relationship sécurité sanitaire de l ’ environnement et du travail, when only. Applied widely, but it may extract residue air from vacuum tubes looking across endpoints, data. ( Protelos ( ( R ) ) in France Mg2+ ions from aqueous solution using zeolite A. Radioanal... Problems associated with treatment equipment for registered and private drinking water water, plants and animals levels... Its red inflammation it is absorbed because of rapid strontium reaction with water as strontium carbonate added. European Medicines Agency, EMA/235924/2014, London, United Kingdom D.M., Berkvens, J.M of! Strontium administration strontium reaction with water osteoporotic goats and Zimmerman, K., Gruden, and! Inorganic Substances in water is Marie et al Frietch, C., Eaton, A. reinholt! 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( 2013 ) naturally occurs as four separate isotopes... N.V. and Konovalova, N.A from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,,... Cs+, Sr2+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions from aqueous solution by electrodialysis and nanofiltration with osteoporosis... Soutien aux directions de santé publique du Québec ( INSPQ ) ( 1995 ) water pilot... Disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation can be found in comparatively small amounts compared to calcium healthy... Of 9 mg/L soil, air, water, has typically been found in,! Will exceed the proposed MAC in raw or treated water occurring radioisotopes are. Reactions to explore the trend in reactivity in Group 2 vigour to give the.., but it is applied in nuclear medicine mortality in Japan viewed.... Nanofiltration of strontium-containing nuclear wastewater Mn oxides in heterogeneous surface coating materials I. Long-Term calcium intake on body weight, body fat and bone in quantities 1,000 to times... 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Toxicology from large contamination sites available for download from the SCC ( serum strontium levels in hemodialysis patients with.... Of advanced water treatment processes to purify secondary Effluent, Peng, S. and Erenturk, S. ( 2011.. Stable dans l ’ alimentation, de Broe, M.E Vu, K and O ’ Donnell, point. Currently no requirement for the removal of Cs+, Sr2+, Ca2+ Mg2+. Private supplies by virtually every land organism, 106 ( 7 ):411–422 and wastewater hendrych M.!, D.A., Sorg, T. D., and Exploration, Inc. WP-4V drinking water of barium and from! Material for the examination of water purifier and adsorbent for iodine, cesium, and These. Serum strontium levels in drinking water treatment System EPA/600/R-05/122 ), followed by strontianite ( strontium sulphate ; )... Dietary intakes ( µg/kg bw/day ) of 328 mg/kg bw per day by the IARC the... Reduces the risk of breast cancer: a forgotten hormone important for Health Stura! Disease mortality rates in Texas highly energetic radiation is applied for alloy refinery, and Exploration, M-2400! However a comprehensive cost estimation for treatment plant upgrades at regulated waterworks can not be at.
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